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凤凰全讯>开奖公告>苹果新2彩app下载安装-2018中考英语易错知识点专练:非谓语动词

苹果新2彩app下载安装-2018中考英语易错知识点专练:非谓语动词

发布时间:2020-01-11 15:58:39 已有: 1074 人阅读

苹果新2彩app下载安装-2018中考英语易错知识点专练:非谓语动词

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非谓语动词是初中英语最难的语法内容,因为它比较抽象,同学们容易将其与谓语动词想混淆。看完今天的文章,相信你会对非谓语动词有一种豁然开朗的感觉,一起来学习吧!

1. 不定式和动名词作主语的区别

(1) 动名词作主语往往表示普通的、一般的行为,不定式作主语常表示某次具体的行为。不定式(或不定式短语)作主语时常用“it” 来代替,称为形式主语,真正主语(不定式)放在句尾。如:

collecting information about children's health is his job.

收集有关儿童健康的信息是他的工作。

it's necessary to discuss the problem with an experienced teacher.与一位有经验的老师讨论这个问题是有必要的。

(2) 常用不定式作主语的句型有:

① it's difficult (important,necessary)for sb. to do...

② it's kind (good,friendly,polite,careless,rude,cruel,clever,foolish,brave)of sb. to do...

(3) 常用动名词作主语的句型有:

① it's no good (use,fun)doing...

② it is a waste of time doing...

2. 不定式和动名词作宾语的区别

they stopped to smoke a cigarette.他们停下来,抽了根烟。

i must stop smoking.我必须戒烟了。

don't forget to come tomorrow.别忘了明天来。

he forgot turning the light off.他忘记他已经关了灯了。

remember to go to the post office after school.

记着放学后去趟邮局。

don't you remember seeing the man before?

你不记得以前见过那个人吗?

i regret to tell you that you can't pass the examination.

我很遗憾地通知你你不能通过这次考试。

i regret disturbing you so long.

我很抱歉打扰了你那么久。

please try to finish this work in thirty minutes.

请尽量在30分钟完成这项工作。

why didn't you try riding a bike to go to school?

为什么不试着骑车去学校呢?

i meant to give you this book today,but i forgot.

我本来打算今天给你这本书的,可是我忘了。

missing this train means waiting for another hour.

错过这辆火车意味着你得再等一小时。

3. 动词不定式和现在分词做宾补的区别

(1) see,watch,hear,feel,notice,have等动词既可跟不带to的不定式做宾补,也可跟现在分词做宾补。跟不带to的不定式做宾补表事情全过程或一次性动作;跟现在分词表主动或正在进行。如:

i heard her sing an english song just now.

刚才我听见她唱了一首英文歌。

i heard her singing an english song when i passed by her room yesterday.昨天经过她房间时,我听见她在唱英文歌。

4. 现在分词和过去分词的区别

(1) 语态上不同:现在分词表示主动的意思,而过去分词多由及物动词变来,表示被动的意思。如:

an exciting story一个令人兴奋的故事(主动)

the excited listeners激动的听众(被动,即被引起激动的)

a moving film一部感动人的影片

a moved audience受感动的观众

(2) 时间关系上不同:一般说来,现在分词所表示的动作往往正在进行,而过去分词所表示的动作,往往已经完成。如:

the changing world正在变化着的世界

the changed world已经起了变化的世界

developing countries发展中国家

developed countries发达国家

5. have sb. do sth. ;have sb. doing;have sth. done辨析

(1) have sb. do sth.

“have+sb. (宾语)+do sth. (宾语补足语)”意为“让/叫/使某人做某事”。此结构中的 have是使役动词,sb.作宾语,其后的do sth.是省去to的动词不定式作宾语补足语。如:

i'll have someone repair the bike for you.

我会让人为你修理自行车的。

(2) have sb. /sth. doing

“have+sb. /sth. (宾语)+现在分词(宾语补足语)”意为“叫/让/使某人一直做某事或让某种情况一直发生”。宾语 sb. /sth.后面用现在分词作宾语补足语,表示宾语与现在分词表示的动作之间为主动关系,且动作正在进行。如:

don't have the dog barking much.

别让狗狂吠不停。

(3) have sth. done

“have+sth. (宾语)+过去分词(宾语补足语)”意为“让/叫/使/请别人做某事”。宾语sth.后面用过去分词作宾语补足语,说明sth.与过去分词表示的动作之间是被动关系。如:

he has had his hair cut.他(请人给他)理发了。

6. 含doing的常见短语

have difficulty /trouble/problem/fun//a good time +(in)+doing;

feel like doing =would like to do想要做某事;

spend time (in)doing sth花费时间做某事;

go+doing表示“从事某项活动”;

be busy doing 忙着做……;

make a contribution to doing 为……作贡献;

look forward to doing 期待……;

prefer doing to doing 比起做……更喜欢做......;

be used to doing 习惯于……

1. 辨别谓语与非谓语

先看四个选项:如果四个选项分别为动词原形、不定式、现在分词、过去分词等情况,那么这个题多半是非谓语动词题。

【例1】(2014·江苏镇江·8) spring bud project is an organization that raises moneypoor young girls return to school.

a. to save b. saving

c. helping d. to help

【解析】考查动词不定式的用法。句意:春蕾计划是一个筹钱帮助贫困女孩返回学校的组织。本句中to help poor young girls为动词不定式作目的状语。故选d。

【答案】d

【例2】(2013·四川内江·36)he hurried back homehis schoolbag.

a. fetched b. to fetch

c. fetching d. fetches

【解析】考查非谓语动词的用法。这里是用不定式作目的状语,构成:他匆忙回家去取书包。所以选择答案b。

【答案】b

2. 熟记习惯搭配

学习非谓语动词时,要记住哪些动词后面用动词不定式,哪些动词后用动名词,同时也要熟记使用非谓语动词的常用句型。这样遇到有关问题就会迎刃而解。

【例1】(2014·江苏扬州·13)—some children can't afford necessary stationary.

—let's donate our pocket money to them.

a. buy b. buying

c. to buy d. be bought

【解析】本题考查非谓语动词的用法。afford后面跟不定式;与buy连用,意为“买不起”。故选c。

【答案】c

【例2】(2014·江苏淮安·15)—what bought joy to linda just now?

—.

a. received a gift

b. she received a gift

c. receiving a gift

d. because she received a gift.

【解析】本题考查非谓语动词的用法。根据句意和句子结构判断,收到礼物给琳达带来快乐,应该动名词短语做句子主语,所以排除a、b、d三项。故选c。

【答案】c

1. (2014·山东济南·53)—what an amazing woman li na is!

—yes,she has got the second grand slam. she keeps _____ and never gives up.

a. trying b. to try

c. tried d. tries

2. (2014·江苏南通一模·10) —sometimes,jim feels stressed,but he doesn't know ______ about it.

—he can get help from his teachers.

a. who to talk b. when to talk

c. who to talk to d. when to talk to

3. (2014·湖北鄂州·27)—if people ______ cutting down the forest,they will have nowhere _______.

—so we should do our best to protect the forests.

a. keep;to live b. will keep;to live in

c. keep;to live in d. will keep;to live

4. ( 2014·江苏东台·5) he lost his key. it made him ______ in the cold to wait for his wife's return.

a. to stay b. stayed

c. stays d. stay

5. (2014·贵州遵义·36) mike is learning ______ a computer.

a. how can he use b. how to use c. how he use

6. (2014·湖北鄂州·34)—lisa is a shy girl.

—yeah,she prefers _____ to ______ .

a. listen;give a speech

b. listening;give a speech

c. to listen;giving a speech

d. listening;giving a speech

7. (2013·河南)our english teacher does what he can _____ us improve our english.

a. help b. to help

c. helping d. helped

8. (2013·河南)boys and girls,attention,please. now let me tell you ______ to the bird island.

a. how to get b. what to get

c. whom to get d. where to get

9. (2013·天津)whenever you have a chance _____ english,you should take it.

a. speak b. to speak

c. spoke d. speaks

10. (2013·安徽)—why are you so excited?

—peter invited me _____ on a trip to yuntai mountain.

a. to go b. go

c. going d. went

11. (2013·四川雅安)the book is well worth _____. i plan ____ one.

a. read;to buy b. reading;buying c. reading;to buy

12. (2013·四川自贡)many students said that they were willing to work hard to make their dreams ______ true.

a. come b. came c. comes

13. (2013·浙江杭州)when people want to relax themselves,they prefer ____ tv or listen to music rather than _____ newspapers.

a. watching;read

b. watching;to read

c. to watch;read

d. to watch;reading

14. (2013·江苏南京)what bad weather it was! we decided ____.

a. to go out

b. not to go out

c. to not go out

d. not going out

15. (2013·江苏苏州)it is very important for us _____ english well.

a. learn b. learning

c. to learn d. learned

1. a 解析:考查动名词的用法。keep doing sth.(继续/坚持做某事)是固定搭配。故选a。

2. c 解析:考查不定式短语的用法。疑问词加不定式构成不定式短语在句中作宾语,应该用talk to与疑问代词who构成不定式短语,不能用疑问副词when。故选c。

3. a 解析:考查动名词的用法。keep doing sth. (继续做某事)是固定搭配。该句是条件状语从句,主句是一般将来时态,从句用一般现在时态代替一般将来时态。主句中之后用不定式作状语。故选a。

4. d 解析:考查不定式的用法。make sb do sth. (使某人做某事)是固定搭配。故选d。

5. b 解析:考查不定式短语的用法。learn how to do sth.(学会做某事)是固定搭配。故选b。

6. d 解析:考查动名词的用法。prefer doing to doing sth.(宁愿做某事不愿做某事)是固定搭配。故选d。

7. b  解析:考查非谓语动词的用法。根据句意“我们英语老师做他能够做的来帮助我们提高英语”,可知此题的谓语动词为do,因此应该用动词不定式作目的状语。因此选b。此题容易把can看为谓语动词,因此错选a。

8. a  解析:考查含特殊疑问词的不定式。句意:“孩子们,请注意了。 现在让我告诉你怎么样去鸟岛。”因此选a。

9. b  解析:考查不定式短语作定语。have a chance to do sth,有机会做某事,后跟动词不定式。

10. a  解析:考查非谓语动词。invite sb. to do sth.邀请某人做某事。to do sth作宾语补足语。故选a。

11. c 解析:考查被动语态中的非谓语动词用法。be well worth doing结构主动表被动,plan to do sth计划做某事,所以选择答案c。

12. a 解析:考查非谓语动词的用法。make sb do sth表示让某人做某事,故答案应选a。

13. c 解析:考查非谓语动词。prefer to do sth than do sth结构表示宁愿做某事而不是......,故选c。

14. b 解析:考查非谓语动词的用法。decide to do sth的否定式为decide not to do sth ,故选b。

15. c 解析:考查非谓语动词。it is important for sb to do sth为固定句型,故选c。

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